Conversational Programs (2021)

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The Genealogy of ELIZA

Computing Machinery and Intelligence (1950)

Alan M. Turing

Alan M. Turing, Computing Machinery and Intelligence (1950)

Imitation Game ||
Standard Turing Test

The imitation game, as described by Alan Turing in Computing Machinery and Intelligence.

The imitation game, as described by Alan Turing in Computing Machinery and Intelligence.

The standard interpretation of the Turing test

1. Imitation game is a concrete (and good)
test for intelligence
2. (Digital) machines can pass that test

Alan M. Turing, Computing Machinery and Intelligence (1950)

Alan M. Turing, Computing Machinery and Intelligence (1950)

A conversation with Eliza

Weizenbaum Archiv

Weizenbaum Archiv

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Rebel at Work (2007)

Excerpt 07:30β€”10:00, 51:40β€”56:28

ELIZAβ€”A Computer Program For the Study of Natural Language Communication Between Man And Machine (1966)

Joseph Weizenbaum

Joseph Weizenbaum, ELIZA (1966)

Winograd and Flores, Understanding Computers and Cognition (1986)

Joseph Weizenbaum, ELIZA (1966)

Joseph Weizenbaum, ELIZA (1966)

Joseph Weizenbaum, ELIZA (1966)

Joseph Weizenbaum, ELIZA (1966)

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Plug & Pray (2010)

Excerpt 23:40β€”32:42

Turing Test (2019)

If software is narrative: Joseph Weizenbaum, artificial intelligence and the biographies of ELIZA (2019)

Simone Natale

β€œSoftware’s opacity, in fact, makes it prone to being translated into a plurality of narratives that help people make sense of its functioning and presence.” (Natale, 2019)

β€œ[...] software artefacts become contested objects whose meanings and interpretations are the subject of complex negotiations within the public sphere.” (Natale, 2019)

Biographies of Media

β€œWeizenbaum wasn’t aiming to make a computer β€˜understand’ language. [...] His deep interest, on the contrary, on how the programme would be interpreted and β€˜read’ by users suggests that he aimed at the creation of an artefact that would produce a specific narrative about computers, AI, and the interaction between humans and machines.” (Natale, 2019)

β€œELIZA, in this regard, was an artefact created to prove his point that AI is due to users’ tendency to project identity – it was, therefore, a narrative about conversational programmes as much as a conversational programme itself.” (Natale, 2019)

β€œLanguage itself becomes merely a tool for manipulating the world, no different in principle from the languages used for manipulating computers.” (Weizenbaum, 1982)

The Genealogy of ELIZA ELIZA effect "normalize by the amount of compute required" Conversations with Eliza Eliza vs. Gamergate